In 1984, historian Ronald Toby published State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan, a text that aimed to upend Japanese historiography as we knew it. His thesis was as simple as it was significant: sakoku (isolation) had never existed in early Tokugawa Japan. Deriding the term as ignorantly eurocentric, Toby argued that the shogunate had in fact maintained healthy international relations within East Asia, establishing a coherent set of foreign policies that sought to replace the long-standing Sinocentric diplomatic order with a Japan-centric one. Only a few years later, Reinier Hesselink published Prisoners from Nambu, in which he sought to restore the historiographical orthodoxy that Toby had overturned. Toby, Hesselink argued, had gone too far in revising Japan’s isolationist history.